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Search results for: breathing

Environmental Air & Breathing

The benefits of breathing well and properly are listed below

      • It neutralizes excess heat and helps maintain an ideal body temperature.
      • It regulates the heartbeat.
      • It strengthens the nerves and settles the emotions.
      • It helps with body-mind integration.
      • It cleanses the body of wastes, especially carbon dioxide.
      • It increases metabolism.
      • It helps with blood circulation to the deeper tissues and capillaries.
      • It rejuvenates the cells.

    Tibb Breathing Exercises

    Breathing exercises will have different effects depending on the techniques used. Slow-breathing exercises will produce less heat than fast-breathing exercises. Each breathing exercise has its own value and offers valuable healing for any number of illness conditions.

    The Tibb Slow Breathing Exercise

    Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions. This exercise has a cooling effect, so is ideal for people with a bilious or sanguinous temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    The Tibb Fast and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a heating effect, so is ideal for people with a phlegmatic or melancholic temperament

    • Assume the same position as described in Breathing Exercise 1.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing in and out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach for about 1 minute only.
    • Then breathe deeper and faster for 3 minutes. This can be extended to 5 minutes as you become more experienced with the exercise.
    • Thereafter, take slow, deep breaths again for 1 minute.


    The Tibb Deep Rhythmic Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is prescribed for all temperamental types. Try doing it on a regular basis, preferably in the early morning.

    • Select a protected time and space.
    • Assume the same position as described in Breathing Exercise 1.
    • Draw a breath through the nose.
    • Hold the breath as long as possible.
    • Gaze upwards, and exhale forcefully through the mouth – the mouth should be opened in an ‘O’ shape.
    • Repeat to a maximum of 15 times.


    The Tibb Mental/Emotional Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is also prescribed for all temperamental types. It creates harmony in the two hemispheres of the brain. Do this exercise early in the morning or late afternoon.

    • Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions.
    • Assume the same position as described in Breathing Exercise 1. The right index finger should be used to close the left nostril. Take a long, deep breath through the right nostril, and hold for 15 to 20 seconds.
    • Release the finger closing the nostril and close the right nostril with the right thumb.
    • Breathe out through the left nostril forcefully. This counts as one complete breath.
    • Repeat the same process starting with the opposite nostril.
    • Start by doing 5 breaths, and slowly build up to 10;
    • After completing the exercise, rest for at least 5 minutes in the same position.

    new home page

    Welcome to the Ibn Sina Institute of Tibb

    About my journey to Tibb

    Prof. Bhikha’s commitment to healthcare is evident in his continuous efforts of establishing an effective, affordable and accessible healthcare model. Starting off as a qualified pharmacist in 1969, he built up Be-Tabs Pharmaceuticals into the largest privately-owned generic manufacturer in South Africa.

    His journey to Tibb and the establishment of the Ibn Sina Institute of Tibb is a heartfelt one. It began more than twenty-five years ago when his youngest daughter, experienced severe breathing difficulties. After a lung biopsy she was diagnosed with fibrosing alveolitis, requiring oxygen continuously. 

    The pulmonologist informed Prof Bhikha that the cause of the hardening of the alveoli in the lungs was unknown and a daily dose of 50mg prednisone was the only possible treatment. This made him realise the limitation of conventional/Western medicine. The days that followed were as dark as night watching her breathe with an oxygen mask and seeing her pretty little face swelling up with the side effects of cortisone.

    This was a turning point and a catalyst for him to research different philosophies of healthcare including Ayurveda, Chinese medicine and more specifically Unani medicine. His choice of learning more about Unani medicine was based on its rich history over many centuries and the contribution of Hippocrates who established this system on the principles of cause and effect.

    In 1994, to learn about Unani medicine Prof Bhikha met Hakim Mohamed Said, from Hamdard University, Pakistan, and arranged for a medical doctor and a primary healthcare nurse to attend an introductory course in this system. In 1999, in an arrangement with Hamdard University, Hakim Abdul Haq, a specialist in Unani philosophy joined the Institute in achieving its vision of promoting the practice and training of Unani medicine in South Africa.

    The decision to choose the name Tibb came after much consideration. Over the centuries this system was called by many different names; Greco-Arab medicine, Western Herbal medicine, Unani-Tibb (‘Greek medicine’) and Unani medicine (Indian subcontinent). The name Tibb (the Arabic word for ‘medicine’) provides a differentiation from conventional/Western medicine and is in keeping with Prof Bhikha’s willingness to incorporate all medical knowledge in the form of integrative medicine.

    Prof Bhikha’s contribution to the development in the promotion and practice of Tibb has earned him many awards including amongst others from Hamdard University (Pakistan), National Institute of Unani Medicine and Aligarh Muslim University (both from India). He was also awarded the Inyathelo Lifetime Philanthropy Award.

    He remains committed to community upliftment and health provision focusing on primary healthcare, training of professionals, and research. He has presented academic papers worldwide and authored numerous books.

    Read more

    CLICK HERE TO SEE THE VIDEO ABOUT THE INSTITUTE

    Latest Updates

    23 March 2020

    A strong immune system is vital. Prof. Bhikha talks about the Corona virus from a Tibb perspective 

    In this video Prof Bhikha provides insight on the Tibb perspective with regards to the coronavirus

    READ MORE

    06 January 2020

    Stellenbosch medical student completes elective at Tibb Treatment Centres

    Raeesah Moola, MBChB – a fifth year student from Stellenbosch University, completed a three-week elective at the Tibb Treatment Centres in Cape Town and shares her views.

    READ MORE

    13 October 2019

    Prof Rashid Bhika Honoured at 3rd National Pharmacy Conference

    The Pharmacy Council of South Africa awarded Prof Rashid Bhikha with “The Legacy Pharmacist Award” at the 3rd National Pharmacy Conference held in Sun City last weekend.

    READ MORE

    25 September 2019

    Is Excess/Abnormal Melancholic Humour the cause of Chronic Conditions?

    In the above research, that was conducted at the Tibb Treatment Centres in Cape Town, one-thousand patients were recruited. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hypothesis that excess or abnormal states of the melancholic humour are a major and significant cause of many common chronic conditions. There was a steady increase in the incidence of patients with chronic conditions in patients with melancholic imbalances. In children and younger adults, it was virtually non-existent, and 15% in young adults. Thereafter it rose to 18% in mature adults, 56% in middle-aged adults, 71% in senior adults, 78% in older adults, and finally 100% in the aged patients. This clinical observation supports the hypothesis that excess/abnormal melancholic humour could well be the cause of most chronic conditions.

    READ MORE

    Prof Bhikha's Weekly Tip: Digestive health in the elderly

    The elderly commonly experience indigestion with symptoms such as bloating and belching, due to undigested foods fermenting. In Tibb, with aging there’s an increase in cold and dry qualities with metabolism decreasing. Production of digestive enzymes including digestive muscles becoming stiffer and weaker due to inefficient heat levels. Tibb recommends supporting Physis. Implement lifestyle factors decreasing cold and dry qualities, following a hot and moist diet. Consume warmer fluids. Smaller meals and light exercise.

    Click here for more information

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    Identify your Temperament

    What defines The Tibb Principles?
    It is knowing and understanding your unique Temperament to optimise your health.
    Read more to find out about Temperament and how you can identify your temperament.

    How to identify your temperament

    Temperament is a combination of a person’s physical, mental, emotional and spiritual side. Although each person is as unique as his/her fingerprint, Tibb divides people into four broad categories, Sanguinous, Phlegmatic, Melancholic and Bilious with respective qualities of heat, coldness, moistness and dryness. Whilst each person as attributes of all four temperamental types, every person has a dominant and a sub-dominant temperament, less of the third and the least amount of the fourth temperament – which is next to each other and not opposite – as opposite qualities (Sanguinous – Hot & Moist) and (Melancholic – (Cold & Dry) cannot exist at the same time.

    The picture adjacent describes temperament and qualities and illustrates that a person with a combination of a Sanguinous and Bilious temperament will have an overall dominant quality of heat less of moistness and dryness and the least amount of coldness. Similarly, the phlegmatic/melancholic temperament will have an overall dominant quality of coldness, less of moistness and dryness and the least amount of heat – this explains why some people feel hot while others always feel cold.

    identify your temperament - ch12 - Identify your Temperament

    Therefore, each individual has an overall qualitative state made-up of the four qualities with one dominant quality and an opposite least quality. Changes to this ideal qualitative state of an individual especially an increase in the dominant quality will have a negative effect on the individual’s health whereas an increase in the opposite least quality will be beneficial for this person.

    As heat is the dominant quality associated with the sanguinous/bilious combination, an excess of heat will negatively affect this individual the most and to the greatest extent. Similarly, an excess of coldness will negatively affect an individual with a phlegmatic/melancholic temperamental combination. This is easy to understand knowing that a person with a sanguinous/bilious temperament is uncomfortable during summer and having spicy foods whereas the phlegmatic/melancholic person needs an extra jersey to keep warm during winter.

    Being aware of the dominant quality of a person’s temperamental combination allows individuals to make positive choices in lifestyle that will be beneficial to their health with an improved Quality of Life. The practice of Tibb revolves around the art and skill of identifying a person’s individual temperamental combination and adhering to a Personalised Lifestyle Programme for optimum health and wellbeing.

    To identify your temperament three broad categories are used.
    These include Physical appearance, Tendencies and Personality traits.
    Remember your dominant/sub-dominant temperament is next to each other and not opposite.
    identify your temperament - Sanguinous temperament 01 - Identify your Temperament
    identify your temperament - Phlegmatic temperament - Identify your Temperament
    identify your temperament - bilious temperament 01 - Identify your Temperament
    identify your temperament - melancholic temperament 01 - Identify your Temperament

    Once you have identified your temperament you can view your personalised lifestyle programme below

    Overview

    As dryness is the dominant quality associated with your temperamental combination, an increase in dryness from the Six Lifestyle Factors will negatively affect you to the greatest extent. An increase in heat and coldness will also affect you, but to a lesser extent, whereas an increase in the quality of moistness will have the least negative effect on you.

    An increase in dryness  can be as a result of:

    summer very hot weather and environment
    late winter dry food and drink
    anger strenuous exercise
    grief irregular elimination of wastes
    not enough sleep

    The illnesses that this combination are inclined to are those associated with the dominant Bilious Temperament:

    Migraine Stress
    Bronchitis Overactive thyroid
    Hay fever Endometriosis

    To a lesser extent this combination will also be inclined to illnesses of the Melancholic  Temperament:

    Insomnia Osteo-arthritis
    Hyperacidity Constipation
    Muscle aches/spasms Flatulence

    Health Promotion for this temperamental combination

    As dryness is the dominant quality associated with your temperamental combination an excess of dryness in each of the lifestyle factors will have a negative effect on you.

    Food and Drink

    Ideally your combination should eat mostly Cold & Moist foods, followed by Hot & Moist foods, less of Cold & Dry foods, and the least amount of Hot & Dry foods.

    Listed below are the four different diet charts

    identify your temperament - chart3 02 01 - Identify your Temperament

    Additional dietary advice:

    • Stick to the above diet especially in summer and spring.
    • Drink at least 2-3 litres (8-12 glasses) of water per day.
    • Avoid refined foods.
    • Eat simply and avoid eating lots of different types of foods in the same meal.
    • If you are emotional or upset, sit down, take a few deep breaths or drink a glass of water.


    Environmental Air & Breathing

    • Fresh air and a cool, properly ventilates environment are most ideal.

    • Recommended breathing exercises include the Tibb Deep Rhythmic breathing, the Tibb Mental/Emotional breathing and the Tibb Slow and Deep breathing exercises:


    The Tibb Deep Rhythmic Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is prescribed for all temperamental types. Try doing it on a regular basis, preferably in the early morning.

    • Select a protected time and space.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Draw a breath through the nose.
    • Hold the breath as long as possible.
    • Gaze upwards, and exhale forcefully through the mouth – the mouth should be opened in an
      ‘O’ shape.
    • Repeat to a maximum of 15 times


    The Tibb Mental/Emotional Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is also prescribed for all temperamental types. It creates harmony in the two hemispheres of the brain. Do this exercise early in the morning or late afternoon.

    • Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Your right index finger should be used to close the left nostril. Take a long, deep breath through your right nostril, and hold for 15 to 20 seconds,
    • Release the finger closing the nostril and close the right nostril with the right thumb.
    • Breathe out through the left nostril forcefully. This counts as one complete breath.
    • Repeat the same process starting with the opposite nostril.
    • Start by doing 5 breaths, and slowly build up to 10;
    • After completing the exercise, rest for at least 5 minutes in the same position.


    Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with your hands on your thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,

    • Close your eyes focus on breathing.

    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing in and out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.

    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.

     

    Physical Exercise

    • Excessive movement and strenuous exercise is not advisable.

    • Exercise in the early morning and late afternoon.

    • Yoga is advisable.

    • Include in the choice of physical exercise, the Tibb Walking Exercise:

    The Tibb Walking Exercise

    • Warm up by walking normally, swinging the your gently. Do this for about 2 minutes initially.

    • Then walk briskly, raising your legs and swinging your arms firmly. Do this for about 5 minutes.

    • Cool down by walking normally, as in the warmup. Do this for about 2 minutes.

    • Do these exercises daily, but each week increase the amount of time you spend doing them until you reach a maximum of 25 minutes per session.

    Sleep

    • A good night’s sleep of 6-8 hours’ is advisable.

    • Lack of sleep (less than five hours on a continuous basis) and late nights will negatively affect you.

    Emotions & Feelings

    • Extreme emotions – excessive worries, sadness, loneliness and overly philosophical thinking are the emotional excesses of this temperamental combination and should be managed with breathing and meditation exercises.

    • A 5-10-minute relaxation break after lunch is beneficial.

    • The following meditation exercises are advised together with the Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing exercise, the Tibb Heart Meditation Exercise and the Tibb Pineal Body Meditation Exercise.

     

    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    The Tibb Heart Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the heart and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise every day and night before going to bed, for 10 – 15 minutes.

     

    The Tibb Pineal Body Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state, in a calm environment, with eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the area between the eyebrows and breathe in deeply
    • Hold the breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner
    • Repeat this exercise for 10 -15 minutes

     

    Elimination

    • Laxatives should be considered.

    • A regular high-fibre diet should be adopted to keep the colon clear.

    Overview

    As heat is the dominant quality associated with your temperamental combination, an increase in heat from the Six Lifestyle Factors will negatively affect you to the greatest extent. An increase in moistness and dryness will also affect you, but to a lesser extent, whereas an increase in the quality of coldness will have the least negative effect on you.

    An increase in heat can be as a result of:

    summer

    very hot weather and environment

    hot food and drink

    anger

    strenuous exercise

    not enough sleep

    The illnesses that this combination are inclined to are those associated with the dominant Bilious Temperament:

    Migraine Stress

    Bronchitis

    Overactive thyroid
    Hay fever

    Endometriosis

    To a lesser extent this combination will also be inclined to illnesses of the Sanguinois Temperament:

    Congestive headache

    High blood pressure

    Diabetes

     Urinary tract infection
    Rheumatoid arthritis Pre-menstrual tension.

    Health Maintenance through the Lifestyle Factors of Tibb

    Good health is achieved by maintaining your ideal temperament. An excess of heat in each of the lifestyle factors will most negatively affect you, faster than changes in the other qualities. You need to be aware of this at all times and control the level of heat in your body.

    Food and Drink

    Ideally your combination should eat mostly Cold & Moist foods, followed by Cold & Dry foods, less of Hot & Moist foods, and the least amount of Hot & Dry foods.

    Listed below are the four different diet charts

    identify your temperament - chart3 02 01 - Identify your Temperament

    Additional dietary advice:

    • Stick to the above diet especially in summer and spring.
    • This is also an optimal diet if you live in coastal areas.
    • Drink at least 2-3 litres (8-12 glasses) of water per day.
    • Avoid refined foods.
    • Eat simply and avoid eating a lot of different types of foods in the same meal.
    • When emotional or upset, sit down, take a few deep breaths or drink a glass of water.


    Environmental Air & Breathing

    • Fresh air and a cool, properly ventilated environment are most ideal.
    • Avoid exposure to the sun, or hot climates.
    • During summer especially it is important to keep cool at all the times.
    • Air-conditioners are acceptable.
    • Recommended breathing exercises include Tibb Deep Rhythmic breathing, the Tibb Mental/Emotional breathing exercise, the Tibb Slow and Deep breathing exercises:


    The Tibb Deep Rhythmic Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is prescribed for all temperamental types. Try doing it on a regular basis, preferably in the early morning.

    • Select a protected time and space.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Draw a breath through the nose.
    • Hold the breath as long as possible.
    • Gaze upwards, and exhale forcefully through the mouth – the mouth should be opened in an ‘O’ shape.
    • Repeat to a maximum of 15 times

     

    The Tibb Mental/Emotional Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is also prescribed for all temperamental types. It creates harmony in the two hemispheres of the brain. Do this exercise early in the morning or late afternoon.

    • Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Your right index finger should be used to close the left nostril. Take a long, deep breath through your right nostril, and hold for 15 to 20 seconds,
    • Release the finger closing the nostril and close the right nostril with the right thumb.
    • Breathe out through the left nostril forcefully. This counts as one complete breath.
    • Repeat the same process starting with the opposite nostril.
    • Start by doing 5 breaths, and slowly build up to 10;
    • After completing the exercise, rest for at least 5 minutes in the same position.


    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.

     

     

    Physical Exercise

    • Excessive movement and strenuous exercise is not advisable.
    • Exercises in the early morning and late afternoon.
    • Yoga is advised.
    • Include in your choice of physical exercise, the Tibb Walking Exercise:


    The Tibb Walking Exercise

    • This is a gentle exercise recommended for all temperamental types. It can be done anywhere – in a small room or outdoors. If safety or space concerns exist, as may be the case with elderly people, then you may ‘walk on the spot’ for the same periods of time.
    • Warm up by walking normally, swinging the arms gently. Do this for about 2 minutes initially.
    • Then walk briskly, raising the legs and swinging the arms firmly. Do this for about 5 minutes.
    • Then cool down by walking normally, as in the warmup. Do this for about 2 minutes.
    • Do these exercises daily but increasing the time for each session weekly to a maximum of 25 minutes per session.

    Sleep

    • A good night’s sleep for 6-8 hours is advisable.
    • Lack of sleep (less than five hours on a continuous basis) and late nights will negatively affect you.

    Emotions & Feelings

    • Extreme emotions of anger, excitability, irritability, excessive speech and suppression of anger are the emotional excesses of your temperamental combination and should be management managed with breathing and meditation exercises.
    • A 5 -10-minute relaxation break after lunch is beneficial.
    • The following meditation exercises are advised together with the Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing exercise, the Tibb Heart Meditation exercise and the Tibb Pineal Body Meditation Exercise.

    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    The Tibb Heart Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Put the head down, close the eyes, concentrate on the heart and breathe in deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise every day and night before going to bed, for 10 – 15 minutes.


    The Tibb Pineal Body Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the area between the eyebrows and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise for 10 – 15 minutes.


    Elimination

    • A regular high-fibre diet should be adopted to keep your colon clear.
    • Laxatives should be considered.

    Overview

    As heat is the dominant quality associated with your temperamental combination, an increase in heat from the Six Lifestyle Factors will negatively affect you to the greatest extent. An increase in moistness and dryness will also affect you, but to a lesser extent, whereas an increase in the quality of coldness will have the least negative effect on you.

    An increase in heat can be as a result of:

    summer very hot weather
    humid environment/weather hot and moist to hot and dry food and drink
    anger strenuous exercises
    not enough sleep

    The illnesses that this combination are inclined to are those associated with the dominant Sanguinous Temperament:

    Congestive headache High blood pressure
    Diabetes Urinary tract infection
    Rheumatoid arthritis Pre-menstrual tension.

    To a lesser extent this combination will also be inclined to illnesses of the Bilious Temperament:

    Migraine Stress
    Bronchitis Overactive thyroid
    Hay fever Endometriosis

    Health Maintenance through the Lifestyle Factors of Tibb

    Good health is achieved by maintaining your ideal temperament. An excess of heat in each of the lifestyle factors will negatively affect you (more than changes in other conditions). Be aware of this at all times and control the level of heat in your body.

    Food and Drink

    Ideally your combination should eat mostly Cold & Dry foods, followed by Cold & Moist foods, less of Hot & Dry foods, and the least amount of Hot & Moist foods.

    Listed below are the four different diet charts

    identify your temperament - chart3 02 01 - Identify your Temperament

    Additional dietary advice:

    • Stick to the above diet especially in summer and spring.
    • This is also an optimal diet if you live in coastal areas.
    • Drink at least 2 litres (8 glasses) of water per day.
    • Avoid refined foods.
    • Eat simply and avoid eating a lot of different types of foods in the same meal.
    • Avoid foods and drinks containing salt as well as fried and processed meats.
    • When emotional or upset, sit down, take a few deep breaths or drink a glass of water.


    Environmental Air & Breathing

    •  Keep cool in hot weather and warm in wet weather.
    • Weather, environment, work and leisure activities that increase heat and moistness -especially in humid weather will have a negative effect.
    • Recommended breathing exercises include the Tibb Slow and Deep breathing, Tibb Deep Rhythmic breathing, the Tibb Mental/Emotional breathing exercises:


    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    The Tibb Deep Rhythmic Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is prescribed for all temperamental types. Try doing it on a regular basis, preferably in the early morning.

    • Select a protected time and space.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Draw a breath through the nose.
    • Hold the breath as long as possible.
    • Gaze upwards, and exhale forcefully through the mouth – the mouth should be opened in an ‘O’ shape.
    • Repeat to a maximum of 15 times

     

    The Tibb Mental/Emotional Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is also prescribed for all temperamental types. It creates harmony in the two hemispheres of the brain. Do this exercise early in the morning or late afternoon.

    • Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Your right index finger should be used to close the left nostril. Take a long, deep breath through your right nostril, and hold for 15 to 20 seconds,
    • Release the finger closing the nostril and close the right nostril with the right thumb.
    • Breathe out through the left nostril forcefully. This counts as one complete breath.
    • Repeat the same process starting with the opposite nostril.
    • Start by doing 5 breaths, and slowly build up to 10;
    • After completing the exercise, rest for at least 5 minutes in the same position.


    Physical Exercise

    • Inadequate rest and strenuous exercise will negatively affect your temperamental combination
    • Gardening and aerobic exercises are beneficial
    • Yoga is advisable
    • Include in the choice of physical exercises, the Tibb Walking Exercise and the Tibb Jogging Exercise:


    The Tibb Walking Exercise

    • Warm up by walking normally, swinging the arms gently. Do this for about 2 minutes initially.
    • Then walk briskly, raising the legs and swinging the arms firmly. Do this for about 5 minutes.
    • Then cool down by walking normally, as in the warmup. Do this for about 2 minutes.
    • Do these exercises daily but increasing the time for each session weekly to a maximum of 25 minutes per session.


    The Tibb Jogging Exercise

    • Jog on the spot, lifting the knees as high as possible, putting the weight only on the balls of the feet – (prancing). At the same time swing arms in a full circular motion.
    • Start by doing this for 30 seconds building up to 5 minutes.
    • Increase gradually by 30 seconds, to a maximum of 10 minutes per session.


    Sleep

    • Six to seven hours sound sleep is essential. Early to bed and early to rise is best for everyone but especially for the dominant Sanguinous temperament.
    • Sleeping more than 8 hours or less than 5 hours a night will negatively affect you.


    Emotions & Feelings

    • Extreme emotions of worry, anger and excessive excitement are the emotional excesses of your temperamental combination and should be managed with breathing and meditation exercises.
    • A 5 -10-minute relaxation break after lunch is beneficial.
    • The following meditation exercises are advised together with the Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing exercise, the Tibb Heart Meditation Exercise and the Tibb Pineal Body Meditation Exercise.


    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor or chair, with a straight spine.
    • Put your head down, close your eyes, concentrate on the heart and breathe in
    • Hold the breath for a while then breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise every day and at night before going to bed, for 10-15 minutes.


    The Tibb Heart Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the heart and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise every day and night before going to bed, for 10 – 15 minutes.


    The Tibb Pineal Body Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the area between the eyebrows and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise for 10 – 15 minutes.


    Elimination

    • A regular high-fibre diet should be adopted to keep your colon clear.
    • Laxatives should be considered.

     

    Overview

    As moistness is the dominant quality associated with your temperamental combination, an increase in moistness from the Six Lifestyle Factors will negatively affect you to the greatest extent. An increase in heat and coldness will also affect you, but to a lesser extent, whereas an increase in the quality of dryness will have the least negative effect on you.

    An increase in moistness can be as a result of:

    Rainy season  humid environmental and weather
    excessive sleep and rest depression and fear
    lack of exercise Hot and moist to cold and moist food & drink

    The illnesses that this combination are inclined to are those associated with the dominant Sanguinous Temperament:

    Congestive headache High blood pressure
    Diabetes Urinary tract infection
    Rheumatoid arthritis Pre-menstrual tension.

    To a lesser extent this combination will also be inclined to illnesses of the Phlegmatic Temperament:

    Asthma (Phlegmatic) Colds & Flu
    Sinusitis  Anaemia
    Underactive thyroid Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Health Maintenance through the Lifestyle Factors of Tibb

    Good health is achieved by maintaining your ideal temperament. An excess of moistness in each of the lifestyle factors will negatively affect you more than other conditions. You need to be aware of this at all times and control the level of moistness in your body.

    Food and Drink

    Ideally your combination should eat mostly Cold & Dry foods, followed by Hot & Dry foods, less of Cold & Moist foods, and the least amount of Hot & Moist foods.

    Listed below are the four different diet charts

    identify your temperament - chart3 02 01 - Identify your Temperament

    Additional dietary advice:

    • Stick to the above diet especially in autumn, rainy weather, during winter and in coastal areas.
    • Avoid drinking water, cool drinks or juices during meals. If you have to, drink very little.
      Preferably drink liquids half an hour before meals OR 1 hour after meals.
    • Drink at least 2 litres (8 glasses) of water a day.
    • Avoid refined foods.
    • Eat simply and avoid eating a lot of different types of foods in the same meal.
    • A 20-30 minute brisk walk every day is very beneficial.
    • Avoid foods and drinks containing salt as well as fried and processed meats.
    • If you are emotional or upset, sit down, take a few deep breaths or drink a glass of water.


    Environmental Air & Breathing

    •  Keep cool in hot weather and warm in wet weather.
    • Weather, environment, work and leisure activities that increase heat and moistness -especially in humid weather will have a negative effect.
    • Recommended breathing exercises include the Tibb Deep Rhythmic breathing, the Tibb Mental/Emotional breathing and the Tibb Slow and Deep breathing exercises:

     


    The Tibb Deep Rhythmic Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is prescribed for all temperamental types. Try doing it on a regular basis, preferably in the early morning.

    • Select a protected time and space.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Draw a breath through the nose.
    • Hold the breath as long as possible.
    • Gaze upwards, and exhale forcefully through the mouth – the mouth should be opened in an ‘O’ shape.
    • Repeat to a maximum of 15 times

     

    The Tibb Mental/Emotional Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is also prescribed for all temperamental types. It creates harmony in the two hemispheres of the brain. Do this exercise early in the morning or late afternoon.

    • Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Your right index finger should be used to close the left nostril. Take a long, deep breath through your right nostril, and hold for 15 to 20 seconds,
    • Release the finger closing the nostril and close the right nostril with the right thumb.
    • Breathe out through the left nostril forcefully. This counts as one complete breath.
    • Repeat the same process starting with the opposite nostril.
    • Start by doing 5 breaths, and slowly build up to 10;
    • After completing the exercise, rest for at least 5 minutes in the same position.


    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    Physical Exercise

    • A 10-15-minute walk after supper is beneficial.

    • Include in the choice of physical exercises, the Tibb Walking Exercise and the Tibb Jogging Exercise:


    The Tibb Walking Exercise

    • Warm up by walking normally, swinging the arms gently. Do this for about 2 minutes initially.
    • Then walk briskly, raising the legs and swinging the arms firmly. Do this for about 5 minutes.
    • Then cool down by walking normally, as in the warmup. Do this for about 2 minutes.
    • Do these exercises daily but increasing the time for each session weekly to a maximum of 25 minutes per session.


    The Tibb Jogging Exercise

    • Jogging is more intense than walking. It will therefore produce more heat (and dryness) than walking. This exercise is more suited to Phlegmatic and Sanguinous temperaments.
    • Jog on the spot, lifting the knees as high as possible, putting the weight only on the balls of the feet – (prancing). At the same time swing arms in a full circular motion.
    • Start by doing this for 30 seconds building up to 5 minutes.
    • Increase gradually by 30 seconds, to a maximum of 10 minutes per session.


    Sleep

    • Six to seven hours sound sleep is essential. Early to bed and early to rise is best for everyone but especially for the dominant Sanguinous temperament.
    • Sleeping more than 8 hours or less than 5 hours a night will negatively affect you.


    Emotions & Feelings

    • Extreme emotions of worry, anger and excessive excitement are the emotional excesses of your temperamental combination and should be managed with breathing and meditation exercises.
    • A 5 -10-minute relaxation break after lunch is beneficial.
    • The following meditation exercises are advised together with the Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing exercise, the Tibb Heart Meditation Exercise and the Tibb Pineal Body Meditation Exercise.


    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions. This exercise has a cooling effect, so is ideal for people with a bilious or sanguinous temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    The Tibb Heart Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Put your head down, close your eyes, concentrate on the heart and breathe in deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise every day and night before going to bed, for 10 – 15 minutes.


    The Tibb Pineal Body Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the area between the eyebrows and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise for 10 – 15 minutes.


    Elimination

    • A regular high-fibre diet should be adopted to keep your colon clear.
    • Laxatives should be considered.
    • Cupping or blood donation 2-3 times a year reduces the excess blood dominance in a Sanguinous person. This is preferable in summer or spring.

    Overview

    As moistness is the dominant quality associated with your temperamental combination, an increase in moistness from the Six Lifestyle Factors will negatively affect you to the greatest extent. An increase in heat and coldness will also affect you, but to a lesser extent, whereas an increase in the quality of dryness will have the least negative effect on you.

    An increase in moistness can be as a result of:

    Early winter cold environment
    Rainy season humid environment and weather
    Cold and moist food and drink depression and fear
    Excessive sleep and rest  lack of exercise

    The illnesses that this combination are inclined to are those associated with the dominant Phlegmatic Temperament:

    Asthma (Phlegmatic) Colds & Flu
    Sinusitis  Anaemia
    Underactive thyroid Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    To a lesser extent this combination will also be inclined to illnesses of the Sanguinous  Temperament:

    Congestive headache High blood pressure
    Diabetes Urinary tract infection
    Rheumatoid arthritis Pre-menstrual tension.

    Health Maintenance through the Lifestyle Factors of Tibb

    Good health is achieved by maintaining your ideal temperament. An excess of moistness in each of the lifestyle factors will most negatively affect you and affect you quicker than any of the other factors. You need to be aware of this at all times and control the level of moistness in your body.

    Food and Drink

    Ideally your combination should eat mostly Hot & Dry foods, followed by Cold & Dry foods, less of Hot & Moist foods, and the least amount of Cold & Moist foods.

    Listed below are the four different diet charts

    identify your temperament - chart3 02 01 - Identify your Temperament

    Additional dietary advice:

    • Stick to the above diet especially in autumn, rainy weather, during winter and in coastal areas.
    • Avoid drinking water, cool drinks or juices during meals. If you have to, drink very little.
      Preferably drink liquids half an hour before meals OR 1 hour after meals.
    • Drink at least 2 litres (8 glasses) of water a day.
    • Avoid refined foods.
    • Eat simply and avoid eating a lot of different types of foods in the same meal.
    • A 20-30 minute brisk walk every day is very beneficial.
    • Avoid foods and drinks containing salt as well as fried and processed meats.
    • If you are emotional or upset, sit down, take a few deep breaths or drink a glass of water.


    Environmental Air & Breathing

    • Weather, environment, work and leisure activities that increase cold and moistness – will negatively affect you.

    • Because of the low heat, phlegmatic people are particularly vulnerable to a cold environment as well as cold and rainy weather.

    • Heat management by wearing appropriate clothing and seeking a warm environment during cold and rainy times is of utmost importance.

    • The bedroom may be heated electrically, with an electric blanket when needed.

    • Recommended breathing exercises include the Tibb Deep Rhythmic breathing, the Tibb Mental/Emotional breathing and the Tibb Fast and Deep breathing exercises:

     

    The Tibb Deep Rhythmic Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is prescribed for all temperamental types. Try doing it on a regular basis, preferably in the early morning.

    • Select a protected time and space.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Draw a breath through the nose.
    • Hold the breath as long as possible.
    • Gaze upwards, and exhale forcefully through the mouth – the mouth should be opened in an ‘O’ shape.
    • Repeat to a maximum of 15 times

     

    The Tibb Mental/Emotional Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is also prescribed for all temperamental types. It creates harmony in the two hemispheres of the brain. Do this exercise early in the morning or late afternoon.

    • Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Your right index finger should be used to close the left nostril. Take a long, deep breath through your right nostril, and hold for 15 to 20 seconds,
    • Release the finger closing the nostril and close the right nostril with the right thumb.
    • Breathe out through the left nostril forcefully. This counts as one complete breath.
    • Repeat the same process starting with the opposite nostril.
    • Start by doing 5 breaths, and slowly build up to 10;
    • After completing the exercise, rest for at least 5 minutes in the same position.

    The Tibb Fast and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a heating effect, so is ideal for people with a phlegmatic or melancholic temperament

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing in and out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach for about 1 minute only.
    • Then breathe deeper and faster for 3 minutes. This can be extended to 5 minutes as you become more experienced with the exercise.
    • Thereafter, take slow, deep breaths again for 1 minute.


    Physical Exercise

    • Exercise on a daily basis will positively affect you.

    • At night a brisk walk after supper is very beneficial.

    • Include in the choice of physical exercise, the Tibb Jogging Exercise:


    The Tibb Jogging Exercise

    • Jogging is more intense than walking. It will therefore produce more heat (and dryness) than walking. This exercise is more suited to Phlegmatic and Sanguinous temperaments.
    • Jog on the spot, lifting the knees as high as possible, putting the weight only on the balls of the feet – (prancing). At the same time swing arms in a full circular motion.
    • Start by doing this for 30 seconds building up to 5 minutes.
    • Increase gradually by 30 seconds, to a maximum of 10 minutes per session.


    Sleep

    • Retiring early for 8 hours of sleep and rising before sunrise is advisable to avoid an excess of phlegm.

    • Sleeping during the daytime should be avoided especially 1 hour before sunset as this aggravates the phlegm and leads to heaviness of the head and sinus congestion.


    Emotions & Feelings

    • Fear, shyness and depression are the emotional excesses of the phlegmatic temperamental combination and should be managed with breathing and meditation exercises.

    • Actively try and be an atmosphere free from stress fear and worries.

    • The following meditation exercises are advised together with the Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing exercise, the Tibb Heart Meditation Exercise and the Tibb Pineal Body Meditation Exercise.


    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    The Tibb Heart Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the heart and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise every day and night before going to bed, for 10 – 15 minutes.


    The Tibb Pineal Body Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the area between the eyebrows and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise for 10 – 15 minutes.


    Elimination

    • Laxatives should be taken to keep the bowels clear.

    Overview

    As coldness is the dominant quality associated with your temperamental combination, an increase in coldness from the Six Lifestyle Factors will negatively affect you to the greatest extent. An increase in moistness and dryness will also affect you, but to a lesser extent, whereas an increase in the quality of heat will have the least negative effect on you.

    An increase in coldness can be as a result of:

    Early or late winter cold environment
    Rainy season cold and moist food and drink
    depression and fear excessive sleep and rest
    grief irregular elimination of waste
    lack of exercise  irregular eating and sleeping habits

    The illnesses that this combination are inclined to are those associated with the dominant Phlegmatic Temperament:

    Asthma (Phlegmatic) Colds & Flu
    Sinusitis  Anaemia
    Underactive thyroid Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    To a lesser extent this combination will also be inclined to illnesses of the Melancholic  Temperament:

    Insomnia Osteo-arthritis
    Hyperacidity Constipation
    Muscle aches/spasms Flatulence

    Health Maintenance through the Lifestyle Factors of Tibb

    Good health is achieved by maintaining your ideal temperament. An excess of coldness in each of the lifestyle factors will most negatively affect you and affect you faster than any of the other factors. Be aware of this at all times and control the level of coldness in your body.

    Food and Drink

    Ideally your combination should eat mostly Hot & Dry foods, followed by Hot & Moist foods, less of Cold & Dry foods, and the least amount of Cold & Moist foods.

    Listed below are the four different diet charts

    identify your temperament - chart3 02 01 - Identify your Temperament

    Additional dietary advice:

    • Stick to the above diet especially in cold weather and during winter and autumn.
    • Avoid drinking water, cool drinks or juices during meals. If you have to, drink very little. Preferably drink liquids half an hour before meals OR 1 hour after meals.
    • Drink at least 1-2 litres (4-8 glasses) of lukewarm water per day.
    • Avoid refined foods.
    • Eat simply and avoid eating lots of different types of foods in the same meal.
    • A 15-20 minute brisk walk every day is very beneficial.
    • Avoid cold things, sour things, products containing dairy products, tin foods, processed meats and salads.
    • Fruits must be washed with warm water before eaten.


    Environmental Air & Breathing

    • Managing heat levels by wearing appropriate clothing and seeking a warm environment is of utmost importance.

    • If necessary, heat the bedroom with an electric blanket when needed.

    • Recommended breathing exercises include the Tibb Deep Rhythmic breathing, the Tibb Mental/Emotional breathing and the Tibb Fast and Deep breathing exercises:

     

    The Tibb Deep Rhythmic Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is prescribed for all temperamental types. Try doing it on a regular basis, preferably in the early morning.

    • Select a protected time and space.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Draw a breath through the nose.
    • Hold the breath as long as possible.
    • Gaze upwards, and exhale forcefully through the mouth – the mouth should be opened in an ‘O’ shape.
    • Repeat to a maximum of 15 times

     

    The Tibb Mental/Emotional Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is also prescribed for all temperamental types. It creates harmony in the two hemispheres of the brain. Do this exercise early in the morning or late afternoon.

    • Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Your right index finger should be used to close the left nostril. Take a long, deep breath through your right nostril, and hold for 15 to 20 seconds,
    • Release the finger closing the nostril and close the right nostril with the right thumb.
    • Breathe out through the left nostril forcefully. This counts as one complete breath.
    • Repeat the same process starting with the opposite nostril.
    • Start by doing 5 breaths, and slowly build up to 10;
    • After completing the exercise, rest for at least 5 minutes in the same position.


    The Tibb Fast and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a heating effect, so is ideal for people with a phlegmatic or melancholic temperament

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing in and out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach for about 1 minute only.
    • Then breathe deeper and faster for 3 minutes. This can be extended to 5 minutes as you become more experienced with the exercise.
    • Thereafter, take slow, deep breaths again for 1 minute.


    Physical Exercise

    • Exercise on a daily basis will positively affect you.

    • At night a brisk walk after supper is very beneficial.

    • Include in the choice of physical exercise, the Tibb Jogging Exercise:


    The Tibb Jogging Exercise

    • Jog on the spot, lifting the knees as high as possible, putting the weight only on the balls of the feet – (prancing). At the same time swing arms in a full circular motion.
    • Start by doing this for 30 seconds building up to 5 minutes.
    • Increase gradually by 30 seconds, to a maximum of 10 minutes per session.

    Sleep

    • Retiring early for 8 hours of sleep and rising before sunrise is advisable to avoid an excess of phlegm.

    • Sleeping during the daytime should be avoided.


    Emotions & Feelings

    • Fear, shyness and depression are the emotional excesses of the phlegmatic temperamental combination and should be managed with breathing and meditation exercises.

    • Actively try and be in an atmosphere free from stress fear and worry.

    • The following meditation exercises are advised together with the Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing exercise, the Tibb Heart Meditation Exercise and the Tibb Pineal Body Meditation Exercise.


    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    The Tibb Heart Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the heart and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise every day and night before going to bed, for 10 – 15 minutes.


    The Tibb Pineal Body Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the area between the eyebrows and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise for 10 – 15 minutes.


    Elimination

    • Laxatives should be taken to keep the bowels clear.

    • Massage is also advised.

    Overview

    As coldness is the dominant quality associated with your temperamental combination, an increase in coldness from the Six Lifestyle Factors will negatively affect you to the greatest extent. An increase in moistness and dryness will also affect you, but to a lesser extent, whereas an increase in the quality of heat will have the least negative effect on you.

    An increase in coldness can be as a result of:

    Early or late winter cold environment
    Rainy season cold and moist food and drink
    depression and fear excessive sleep and rest
    grief irregular elimination of waste
    lack of exercise  irregular eating and sleeping habits

    The illnesses that this combination are inclined to are those associated with the dominant Melancholic Temperament:

    Insomnia Osteo-arthritis
    Hyperacidity Constipation
    Muscle aches/spasms Flatulence

    To a lesser extent this combination will also be inclined to illnesses of the Phlegmatic  Temperament:

    Asthma (Phlegmatic) Colds & Flu
    Sinusitis  Anaemia
    Underactive thyroid Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Health Maintenance through the Lifestyle Factors of Tibb

    Good health is achieved by maintaining your ideal temperament. An excess of coldness in each of the lifestyle factors will most negatively affect you and affect you faster than changes in other conditions. Be aware of this at all times and control the level of coldness in your body.

    Food and Drink

    Ideally your combination should eat mostly Hot & Moist foods, followed by Hot & Dry foods, less of Cold & Moist foods, and the least amount of Cold & Dry foods.

    Listed below are the four different diet charts

    identify your temperament - chart3 02 01 - Identify your Temperament

    Additional dietary advice:

    • Stick to the above diet especially in cold weather and during winter and autumn.
    • Avoid drinking water, cool drinks or juices during meals. If you have to, drink very little. Preferably drink liquids half an hour before meals OR 1 hour after meals.
    • Drink at least 1-2 litres (4-8 glasses) of lukewarm water per day.
    • Avoid refined foods.
    • Eat simply and avoid eating lots of different types of foods in the same meal.
    • A 15-20 minute brisk walk every day is very beneficial.
    • Avoid cold things, sour things, products containing dairy products, tin foods, processed meats and salads.
    • Fruits must be washed with warm water before eaten.


    Environmental Air & Breathing

    • Weather, environment, work and leisure activities that increase coldness and dryness will negatively affect you.

    • In autumn keep away from the cold of night and the midday heat.

    • Dewy conditions during autumn, late winter and between midnight and 6:00am also aggravates this temperamental combination.

    • Outings or change of environment (picnics, etc.) during times other than those mentioned every 2-3 months is beneficial.

    • Protect yourself from dry weather by applying a moisturizer, cream or oil (olive oil) to the skin.

    • Recommended breathing exercises include the Tibb Deep Rhythmic breathing, the Tibb Mental/Emotional breathing and the Tibb Fast and Deep breathing exercises:

     


    The Tibb Deep Rhythmic Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is prescribed for all temperamental types. Try doing it on a regular basis, preferably in the early morning.

    • Select a protected time and space.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Draw a breath through the nose.
    • Hold the breath as long as possible.
    • Gaze upwards, and exhale forcefully through the mouth – the mouth should be opened in an ‘O’ shape.
    • Repeat to a maximum of 15 times

     


    The Tibb Mental/Emotional Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is also prescribed for all temperamental types. It creates harmony in the two hemispheres of the brain. Do this exercise early in the morning or late afternoon.

    • Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Your right index finger should be used to close the left nostril. Take a long, deep breath through your right nostril, and hold for 15 to 20 seconds,
    • Release the finger closing the nostril and close the right nostril with the right thumb.
    • Breathe out through the left nostril forcefully. This counts as one complete breath.
    • Repeat the same process starting with the opposite nostril.
    • Start by doing 5 breaths, and slowly build up to 10;
    • After completing the exercise, rest for at least 5 minutes in the same position.


    The Tibb Fast and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a heating effect, so is ideal for people with a phlegmatic or melancholic temperament

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing in and out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach for about 1 minute only.
    • Then breathe deeper and faster for 3 minutes. This can be extended to 5 minutes as you become more experienced with the exercise.
    • Thereafter, take slow, deep breaths again for 1 minute.

    Physical Exercise

    • A 10-15-minute walk after supper is beneficial.

    • Yoga is advisable.

    • Include in the choice of physical exercise, the Tibb Jogging Exercise:

    The Tibb Jogging Exercise

    • Jog on the spot, lifting the knees as high as possible, putting the weight only on the balls of the feet – (prancing). At the same time swing arms in a full circular motion.
    • Start by doing this for 30 seconds building up to 5 minutes.
    • Increase gradually by 30 seconds, to a maximum of 10 minutes per session.

    Sleep

    • Get to bed early, around 22:00 for 6-8 hours’ sleep.

    • Excessive walking during the night will negatively affect you.

    Emotions & Feelings

    • Extreme emotions – excessive worries, sadness, loneliness and overly philosophical thinking are the emotional excesses of this temperamental combination and should be managed with breathing and meditation exercises.

    • A 5-10-minute relaxation break after lunch is beneficial.

    • The following meditation exercises are advised together with the Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing exercise, the Tibb Heart Meditation Exercise and the Tibb Pineal Body Meditation Exercise.

    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    The Tibb Heart Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the heart and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise every day and night before going to bed, for 10 – 15 minutes.


    The Tibb Pineal Body Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the area between the eyebrows and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise for 10 – 15 minutes.


    Elimination

    • Laxatives should be taken to keep the bowels clear.

    • Be aware of unnecessary suppression of stools and urine.

    Overview

    As dryness is the dominant quality associated with your temperamental combination, an increase in dryness from the Six Lifestyle Factors will negatively affect you to the greatest extent. An increase in heat and coldness will also affect you, but to a lesser extent, whereas an increase in the quality of moistness will have the least negative effect on you.

    An increase in dryness  can be as a result of:

    Late winter very hot weather and environment
    anger dry food and drink
    strenuous exercise grief
    irregular eating and sleeping habits  excessive wakening
    irregular elimination of wastes

    The illnesses that this combination are inclined to are those associated with the dominant Melancholic Temperament:

    Insomnia Osteo-arthritis
    Hyperacidity Constipation
    Muscle aches/spasms Flatulence

    To a lesser extent this combination will also be inclined to illnesses of the Bilious  Temperament:

    Migraine Stress
    Bronchitis Overactive thyroid
    Hay fever Endometriosis

    Health Maintenance through the Lifestyle Factors of Tibb

    Good health is achieved by maintaining your ideal temperament. An excess of dryness in each of the lifestyle factors will most negatively affect you and affect you faster than the other factors. Be aware of this at all times and control the level of dryness in your body.

    Food and Drink

    Ideally your combination should eat mostly Hot & Moist foods, followed by Cold & Moist foods, less of Hot & Dry foods and the least amount of Cold & Dry foods.

    Listed below are the four different diet charts

    identify your temperament - chart3 02 01 - Identify your Temperament

    Additional dietary advice:

    • Stick to the above diet especially in cold weather and during winter and autumn.
    • Avoid drinking water, cool drinks or juices during meals. If you have to, drink very little. Preferably drink liquids half an hour before meals OR 1 hour after meals.
    • Drink at least 2 litres (8 glasses) of water per day.
    • Avoid refined foods.
    • Eat simply and avoid eating lots of different types of foods in the same meal.
    • A 15-20 minute brisk walk every day is very beneficial.
    • Avoid cold things, sour things, products containing dairy products, tin foods, processed meats and salads.
    • Fruits must be washed with warm water before eaten.


    Environmental Air & Breathing

    • Weather, environment, work and leisure activities that increase coldness and dryness will negatively affect you.

    • In autumn keep away from the cold of night and the midday heat.

    • Dewy conditions during autumn, late winter and between midnight and 6:00am also aggravates this temperamental combination.

    • Outings or change of environment (picnics, etc.) during times other than those mentioned every 2-3 months is beneficial.

    • Protect yourself from dry weather by applying a moisturizer, cream or oil (olive oil) to the skin.

    • Breathing exercises in the early morning and late afternoon.
    • Recommended breathing exercises include the Tibb Deep Rhythmic breathing, the Tibb Mental/Emotional breathing and the Tibb Fast and Deep breathing exercises:

     


    The Tibb Deep Rhythmic Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is prescribed for all temperamental types. Try doing it on a regular basis, preferably in the early morning.

    • Select a protected time and space.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Draw a breath through the nose.
    • Hold the breath as long as possible.
    • Gaze upwards, and exhale forcefully through the mouth – the mouth should be opened in an ‘O’ shape.
    • Repeat to a maximum of 15 times

     


    The Tibb Mental/Emotional Breathing Exercise

    This exercise is also prescribed for all temperamental types. It creates harmony in the two hemispheres of the brain. Do this exercise early in the morning or late afternoon.

    • Select a protected time and space, free from interruptions.
    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Your right index finger should be used to close the left nostril. Take a long, deep breath through your right nostril, and hold for 15 to 20 seconds,
    • Release the finger closing the nostril and close the right nostril with the right thumb.
    • Breathe out through the left nostril forcefully. This counts as one complete breath.
    • Repeat the same process starting with the opposite nostril.
    • Start by doing 5 breaths, and slowly build up to 10;
    • After completing the exercise, rest for at least 5 minutes in the same position.


    The Tibb Fast and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a heating effect, so is ideal for people with a phlegmatic or melancholic temperament

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting position with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair,
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing in and out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach for about 1 minute only.
    • Then breathe deeper and faster for 3 minutes. This can be extended to 5 minutes as you become more experienced with the exercise.
    • Thereafter, take slow, deep breaths again for 1 minute.

    Physical Exercise

    • A 10-15-minute walk after supper is beneficial.

    • Yoga is advisable.

    • Include in the choice of physical exercise, the Tibb Jogging Exercise:

    The Tibb Jogging Exercise

    • Jog on the spot, lifting the knees as high as possible, putting the weight only on the balls of the feet – (prancing). At the same time swing arms in a full circular motion.
    • Start by doing this for 30 seconds building up to 5 minutes.
    • Increase gradually by 30 seconds, to a maximum of 10 minutes per session.

    Sleep

    • Get to bed early, around 22:00 for 6-8 hours’ sleep.

    • Excessive walking during the night will negatively affect you.

    Emotions & Feelings

    • Extreme emotions – excessive worries, sadness, loneliness and overly philosophical thinking are the emotional excesses of this temperamental combination and should be managed with breathing and meditation exercises.

    • A 5-10-minute relaxation break after lunch is beneficial.

    • The following meditation exercises are advised together with the Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing exercise, the Tibb Heart Meditation Exercise and the Tibb Pineal Body Meditation Exercise.

     

    The Tibb Slow and Deep Breathing Exercise

    This exercise has a calming effect and therefore is ideal in meditation exercises for all temperamental types, especially for people with a dominant/sub-dominant bilious temperament.

    • Sit on the floor in a squatting positions with hands on thighs or in the ‘lotus’ position, keeping a straight back in both cases. If neither position is possible, then lie on the floor or sit in a comfortable chair.
    • Close your eyes and focus on your breathing.
    • Take slow and deep breaths, breathing out through the nose, distending and filling the stomach.
    • Continue breathing this way for 5 minutes.


    The Tibb Heart Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the heart and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise every day and night before going to bed, for 10 – 15 minutes.


    The Tibb Pineal Body Meditation

    • Sit in a relaxed state in a calm environment, with your eyes closed.
    • Concentrate on the area between the eyebrows and breathe deeply.
    • Hold breath for a while and breathe out slowly in the same manner.
    • Continue this exercise for 10 – 15 minutes.

    Elimination

    • Laxatives should be taken to keep the bowels clear.

    • Be aware of unnecessary suppression of stools and urine.

    Tibb videos

    View our collection of Tibb Videos
    Tibb is a humanistic and holistic approach that recognizes the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual causes of illness or health, as well as the techniques of modern science and medicine.

    Tibb is spearheaded by the Ibn Sina Institute of Tibb. The main objectives of the Institute include promoting the training and practice of Tibb in South Africa with special emphasis on educating and empowering individuals to take responsibility for their own health.

    For Tibb true healing comes from within. Tibb is not merely a medical system – it is a Lifestyle.

    My Journey to Tibb

    Prof. Bhikha’s introduction to Tibb began more than twenty-five years ago. In this heartwarming, personal interview, learn more about his journey to Tibb in South Africa, his dedication to holistic healthcare with improved clinical skills and service delivery through mindful responsibility to the greater community.

    About the Institute

    The Ibn Sina Institute of Tibb was established as a Public Benefit Organisation, in 1997 to promote the practice and training of Tibb in South Africa. Founded by Prof. Rashid Bhikha, who has dedicated his lifetime to health upliftment, the Institute has worked tirelessly towards effective and holistic healthcare through the principles of Tibb. In this interview, Prof. Bhikha talks about his vision for the Institute and his passion for social upliftment.

    History of Tibb

    The History of Tibb is as old as the history of man, with Unani-Tibb, also known as Greek medicine, being documented for close to five-thousand years. Learn about the evolution of Tibb through the centuries as Prof. Bhikha discusses historic periods, the progression of Tibb philosophy and the changes to holistic medicine with the advent of the germ theory.

    Philosophy of Tibb

    In this introduction to the Philosophy of Tibb, Prof. Bhikha discusses the principles of Tibb that he will explain in depth in the videos that follow. Learn how Tibb is a branch of knowledge that deals with the states of health and disease in the human body for the purposes of adopting suitable measures for the preservation or restoration of health based on the temperamental and humoral theory.

    Tibb Principle: Creation

    Everything in the universe, from the smallest to the largest in creation, constitutes the four elements of heat, cold, moistness and dryness. The result of this is that each and everything created has an overall quality called ‘temperament’. In this episode, Prof. Bhikha shares insight into the concept of creation in relation to Tibb.

    Tibb Principle: Qualities

    In this video detailing the principle of Qualities in Tibb, Prof. Bhikha discusses the effect of qualities on human beings, and all living organisms. Gain insight into why qualities provide the basis of interpreting aetiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Tibb Principle: Physis

    Physis can be likened to having our own personal doctor living inside us, an inherent wisdom of self-healing. In this video, Prof. Bhikha explains the Tibb principle of Physis giving insight into why Hippocrates described this innate capability as ‘vis medicatrix Natura’ or ‘the ability of the body to heal itself’.

    Tibb Principle: Temperament

    The concept of temperament is one of the unrivalled features of Tibb. In this episode, you will learn how to identify your unique temperament to optimize your wellbeing. Prof. Bhikha details how an individual’s temperament is a combination of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual attributes and explains why knowledge of your unique temperament will empower you to live a healthy and productive life and also provides insights to predisposition to illness conditions that you will be inclined to.

    Tibb Principle: Humours

    The humoral theory was conceptualised by Hippocrates 2500 years ago. It covered all aspects of health and disease from prevention, aetiology, pathology, diagnosis to treatment until the end of the 18th century. Learn more about this key principle in Tibb, as Prof. Bhikha explains why every level of organisation within the body is infused by and interconnected with the humours. Learn how the humours are identified, why they provide nutrition to the body’s complex structure and how they are responsible for the body’s energy requirements.

    Tibb Principle: Lifestyle Factors

    The Six Tibb Lifestyle Factors are ultimately the cause of both health and disease. After gaining an understanding into the Tibb principles of Temperament and Humours discussed in the previous videos, this episode provides detailed explanation of the best way to maintain homeostasis by effectively managing lifestyle. These factors of Air & Breathing, Food & Drink, Sleep and Wakefulness, Rest and Movement, Emotions and Elimination are specific to each temperamental type.

    Tibb Principle: How Illnesses Develop

    Tibb recognises that illnesses do not just happen but are the result of identifiable cause. In this video, Prof. Bhikha discusses how the Tibb principles of physis, temperament, humours and lifestyle factors allow for a comprehensive understanding of how illnesses are caused. Gain insight into the pathological processes that result in the disruption of homeostasis which could lead to the development of disease.

    Tibb Principle: Treatment

    Now that you understand the Tibb principles and the pathological processes that may lead to illness, Prof. Bhikha explains tried and tested Tibb treatments in this episode. Tibb treatment options work to restore homeostasis combining application of Lifestyle Factors, eliminative therapies and pharmacotherapy

    Why Consumer Empowerment

    Tibb is a science of medicine on both the preservation of health, and the restoration of illness conditions. To this end, empowering individuals in health promotion has always been an important objective of Prof. Bhikha. In this video, he discusses the need for consumers to take responsibility and actively participate in their health and wellbeing.

    Consumer Empowerment: Health Promotion

    In this video, Prof. Bhikha explains the need for health promotion within the context of an individual’s temperamental combination. Gain insight into the implementation of the Tibb Personalized Lifestyle Programmes for optimum health and also to delay the onset of chronic illness conditions.

    Consumer Empowerment: Illness Management

    Whilst Treatment in Tibb includes the use of natural or herbal medication, eliminating toxins through cupping, massage or purgation, the primary focus of this video is to empower consumer to understand illness management through lifestyle changes. In the final episode of this series, Prof. Bhikha discusses illnesses conditions that are highlighted in the book, ‘Healing with Tibb’. He further explains why lifestyle protocols are unique for each illness condition and how best to integrate health modalities for optimum benefit.

    Lifestyle Factors in Tibb

    Tibb believes that by being aware of our unique temperament and the role of lifestyle in the governance of our health, we can empower ourselves to make wiser choices that will prevent and overcome illness.
    This video details the Tibb philosophies of temperament and Lifestyle Factors and explains their value in the modern world where we often choose convenience over healthy choices – at the expense of ourselves. Through self-awareness we can take responsibility for our own health.

    Conceptualised, directed and produced by Lianne Cox from A Gaia Works Production.

    About Tibb - Knowing your Individuality and Self Healing

    Tibb is a holistic system that that acknowledges your individuality – it takes every aspect into account. By knowing yourself, your personality and the environmental and emotional issues that affect you, you can enhance your well-being and promote self-healing.

    This video highlights the key philosophies of Tibb, especially with regards to our fast-paced, stressful lifestyle that often leaves us in a health deficit.

    “Good health is defined not by the absence of illness, but by the harmony with ones environment through mental, emotional and spiritual wellness” Prof. Rashid Bhikha (Chairman and Founder of the Ibn Sina Institute of Tibb)

    Conceptualised, directed and produced by Lianne Cox from A Gaia Works Production.

    Outreach & Partnership Programme

    The Institute has partnered with the Department of Health, NGO’s, and health providers to bring effective, affordable healthcare to underprivileged communities. Our social responsibility programme promotes empowerment in health by educating the public on the role of lifestyle in health promotion and illness management, with trained community health workers as Tibb Lifestyle Advisors.

    This video, gives a first-hand account from some of our partners in Soweto, where Tibb has made a profound impact on the community.

    Conceptualised, directed and produced by Lianne Cox from A Gaia Works Production.

    Personality Traits of the 4 Temperaments

    This video highlights a comedic approach of the personality traits of the 4 Temperaments in Tibb as explained by Joey Rasdien.

    Tibb Corporate Video

    The video depicts the activities of the Ibn Sina Institute of Tibb

    Elimination

    Tibb guidelines for assisting elimination

    • Eat foods that are easily digestible such as fruit and vegetables and minimize foods like meat and fish that take more energy and time to digest.
    • Use natural digestive aids in cooking such as ginger and drink teas like peppermint or green tea after a meal.
    • Improve metabolic function through the use of herbs and spices like cumin, cinnamon, ginger, garlic, turmeric and black pepper.
    • Ensure that elimination of both urine and stools is never suppressed and that the colon is emptied daily.
    • Take a mild laxative at least once every fortnight.

    Drink water to flush out the kidneys and to improve the flow of blood in the vessels.